Comprehensive Income vs Other Comprehensive Income: What’s the difference?

Comprehensive income excludes owner-caused changes in equity, such as the sale of stock or purchase of Treasury shares. Retained earnings are the funds leftover from corporate profits after all expenses and dividends have been paid. Any held investment classified as available for sale, which is not intended to be held until maturity, and isn’t a loan or a receivable, may be recognized as other comprehensive income. My Accounting Course  is a world-class educational resource developed by experts to simplify accounting, finance, & investment analysis topics, so students and professionals can learn and propel their careers. At the end of the statement is the comprehensive income total, which is the sum of net income and other comprehensive income.

In financial accounting, corporate income can be broken down in a multitude of ways, and firms have some latitude on how and when to recognize and report their earnings. Two such measurements are comprehensive income and other comprehensive income (OCI). Though they sound similar, there are certain differences, primarily in the level of detail they provide into a company’s financial situation. In some circumstances, companies combine the income statement and statement of comprehensive income, or it will be included as footnotes.

  1. FASB and many investors believe that reporting unrealized numbers unnecessarily increase earnings and make companies look more profitable than they are.
  2. The amount of other comprehensive income will cause an increase in the stockholders’ equity account Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (while a negative amount will cause a decrease in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income).
  3. A company’s income statement details revenues and expenses, including taxes and interest.
  4. At the end of the statement is the comprehensive income total, which is the sum of net income and other comprehensive income.

These items are not part of net income, yet are important enough to be included in comprehensive income, giving the user a bigger, more comprehensive picture of the organization as a whole. The statement of comprehensive income contains those revenue and expense items that have not yet been realized. It accompanies an organization’s income statement, and is intended to present a more complete picture of the financial results of a business. It is typically presented after the income statement within the financial statements package, and sometimes on the same page as the income statement. The statement of comprehensive income is a financial statement that summarizes both standard net income and other comprehensive income (OCI).

Breaking Down Comprehensive Income

However, a company with other comprehensive income will typically file this form separately. The statement of comprehensive income is not required if a company does not meet the criteria to classify income as comprehensive income. Income excluded from the income statement is reported under “accumulated other comprehensive income” of the shareholders’ equity section. Although the income statement is a go-to document for assessing the financial health of a company, it falls short in a few aspects. The income statement encompasses both the current revenues resulting from sales and the accounts receivables, which the firm is yet to be paid. OCI consists of revenues, expenses, gains, and losses that are unrealized, and are excluded from net income.

Understanding Other Comprehensive Income

Over 1.8 million professionals use CFI to learn accounting, financial analysis, modeling and more. Start with a free account to explore 20+ always-free courses and hundreds of finance templates and cheat sheets. Like other publicly-traded companies, Ford Motor Company files quarterly and annual reports with the SEC. In its first quarter filing for 2023, it published its consolidated statements of comprehensive income, which combines comprehensive income from all of its activities and subsidiaries (featured below). Comprehensive income provides a complete view of a company’s income, some of which may not be fully captured on the income statement. The amount of net income will cause an increase in the stockholders’ equity account Retained Earnings, while a loss will cause a decrease.

Limitations of a Statement of Comprehensive Income

Other comprehensive income is not listed with net income, instead, it appears listed in its own section, separate from the regular income statement and often presented immediately below it. You can learn more about other comprehensive income by referring to an intermediate accounting textbook. One thing to note is that these items rarely occur in small and medium-sized businesses. OCI comprehensive income meaning items occur more frequently in larger corporations that encounter such financial events. For the past 52 years, Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as an accounting supervisor, manager, consultant, university instructor, and innovator in teaching accounting online. Net income is arrived at by subtracting cost of goods sold, general expenses, taxes, and interest from total revenue.

By adding this statement to the financial statement package, investors have a more detailed view of revenue and expense items that will be realized in the future. This extra information can provide some clues as to the financial results that a business will report at a later date, though only a portion of it. Though this statement has some predictive value, it makes no indication of the timing for when revenue and expense items will be realized in the future.

Instead investors and creditors must look on the statement of stockholder’s equity, a combined statement of comprehensive income, or a second separate income statement if they want to see the affects of unrealized gains and losses on equity. These reports list all of the unrealized gains and losses that took place during the year and show how they contribute to the overall equity balance of the company. For example, net income does not take into account any unrealized gains or losses because they haven’t actually occurred yet.